CALL, WRITE - SKYPE
TELL A FRIEND
THE SITE YOU WILL GET ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS ARISING UNDER CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF WOODEN HOUSES:
- What are the best building materials used in the construction of wooden houses, bath or even a house?
- What technological solutions will lead to the full satisfaction of all of your requests?
- What manufacturers are silent: what problems might lie in wait for you?
- Why LLC "P & M" - the best choice for you among all building materials made of wood?
CLASSIFICATION OF WOODEN HOUSES.
Wood - one of the oldest building materials used in house construction. And, despite this, it remains the most popular, reliable, environmentally friendly and aesthetic material. Wood - a renewable natural resource, and if used properly - more durable building material than concrete, bricks, foam block and other building materials. Wood in Russia was the main building material, which in the Soviet period was not undeservedly popular. Percentage of wooden house in the forest of our power - Russia is much lower than in Sweden, Finland, USA, Canada, and in Europe as a whole. Fortunately, the dynamics of growth of per cent of houses made of wood over the last decade is encouraging.
HOUSE OF ROUND WOOD.
House of untreated wood.
Some of the earliest houses were made of wood home from roundwood. Forest cut down mainly in the winter, he selected from the most healthy and smooth logs, which are subsequently converted by an ax in felling. To minimize the costs of log-sometimes in the woods were cut and subsequently transported to the place settings. Today, the house of round logs are very popular handmade, making them the appearance of hardware is easier and faster, but it is still handmade. Log houses are manufactured with or without Pererub Pererub, ie the first version of the log stands at 150-350 mm for the outer boundary wall, in another case, the log does not protrude beyond the outer boundary wall. There are three main types of log houses with Pererub, namely, cutting Russian, Norwegian and Canadian felling felling. They differ mainly in view of the cup, although the Norwegian cabin still provides for the processing of round logs on the sides, ie turning it into a polubrus often popularly called the "carriage" (Many are outraged by this name, saying that the correct name groundsel, but I take it calmly, because at one time the name of carriage apply to polubrus produced at sawmill). The name was common in many regions, although the people at that time had little understanding of Norwegian cabin). What is preferable - a round timber or flitches, each defines for himself (there is a way intermediate solutions when one side makes a bar, on the other reserve timber round, controversial version). Personally, my preference - flitches. Now for the most essential - this is a cup. We will not delve into the long form, etc., on this topic mass of articles in brief the following, I think this is the main - the Norwegian and Canadian Cup in desiccation of the wood to bind, which does not form cracks in the Russian control room in the formation of desiccation cracks, which subsequently have to patch up.
Now about the cut houses without Pererub. Such houses are often called home to "urban corner." There are a variety of locks for wooden houses without Pererub. The most frequent corners, cut down in the "paw," There is also a connection to "dovetail" on rectangular veneer, etc. For particularly interested in this topic I can suggest to look GOST 30974-2002 "Connections angular wooden log Pavestone and low-rise buildings, construction, dimensions." The angles in the wooden houses are insulated and further sealed accordingly various decorative materials. Imagination has no boundaries here, it can be easy and planed boards, and decorative brick, artificial and natural stone. It all depends on your imagination and wallet. In my opinion, the houses with this standpoint the most practical, though still a matter of taste, and many people prefer to cut into two. The rest of the house of round wood cutting hand are not much different from each other. The main advantage, in my opinion, a wooden house hand is its uniqueness. With the same project can not make two identical homes, even if the master is the same.
Home from a round timber.
Time goes by, there is progress in the world, appears on the market logs. Round perishable often made since zapilennymi cups in the form designer. The main advantage of houses made of logs is the simplicity of its production, a fairly accurate connection (as long as the raw wood), a standard size. Houses made of logs look strictly, absolutely, relatively nice. In addition, reached a pretty good price due to economies of mass production. Perhaps this is all the advantages of logs, followed by the disadvantages and they are many. One of the drawbacks, but like all the houses of round logs, is that the house made out of raw material and demand shrinkage. In addition, the raw material is unstable and hence any kind of distortion, cracks, crevices appearance at the corners and walls. Of course, with that learned how to fight, but the methods are the same, and requires a fairly large amount of time since the installation of the house until the of their choice. During the construction of houses with a budget stretched in time, it can even be a plus. I'm not inclined to think of a significant deterioration in the quality of logs from the fact that most best removed layer of wood and, consequently, because of this house is short-lived. Perhaps today a major role in the longevity of wooden houses are properly selected antiseptics and design for continuous aeration timber. (The main enemy of wood - it's moist, warm, unventilated space, promoting the formation of all sorts of microorganism).
HOUSES MADE OF BEAMS.
House of unprocessed timber.
After increasing the number of sawmills has been actively implemented in the construction of simple unprocessed timber. Bruce received by sawmills, by sawing round logs. The introduction of the construction of wooden houses from the raw bar substantially reduced assembly time at home, needed less qualified, accelerated zarezany corner locks. Wooden houses from the raw bar are all the same disadvantages (and the chief of them - the humidity) and that the house of round logs. This bar is, grates, crackled appearance of large, large shrinkage shrinkage. In addition, the home of the raw lumber demands of external and internal finishes, which in turn should allow ventilation lumber, this is often overlooked. A lot of houses were built of timber during the Soviet era, these huts are still standing in the abandoned villages, and often have empty in the provincial towns. Age proved to be their short-lived. But like any other material, the raw bar also has a right to exist and quite a number of houses and cottages built especially from this material.
Houses from glued beams.
I intentionally miss the raw materials such as corrugated timber and profiled bar dry (to be discussed below), and begin with an overview of laminated veneer lumber, because I believe that these materials are poor derivatives laminated veneer lumber and were designed to reduce the cost of construction at the resemblance to the good and elite material. And we start with an overview of the most modern and most having good characteristics of the material - laminated veneer lumber. The very idea of gluing the wood has been implemented yet in the 12th century in Japan for the bonding of the bows, the historical path of plywood can easily be read on Wikipedia, but that's not it. The most common glulam beams began to be used in the early 20th century Germany. A huge number of buildings constructed of plywood in Europe, and that is not low-rise building. To understand why the laminated board material is the number one look at the technology of its manufacture. That's one of the technologies. Enterprise arrives at the warehouse board 1.2 grades according to GOST 8486-86 natural moisture. And while, when it was harvested wood, is irrelevant. Board is placed in bags and placed in a certain way in modern kilns. Automatic timber drying is performed by the program developed by drying. Each species and each has its own thickness drying program. For example, spruce 50h200 section (50 thick) dried for 7-8 days before 12% humidity with an accuracy of 2%. Next comes a wood shop, where sawn lengthwise, and are cut clearly visible defects, decay, end knots, the curvature is removed, etc. The next operation is the primary gouging, it is necessary for opening the hidden defects as well as for the calibration of the width of the board for tenoning machine. This fabrikat sorted on the front and inner lamellae, shown in a marriage that is sent to the line of cutting optimization. Wood glued together along the line infinitely splicing (length is defined according to the order) and stored for at least 4 hours to cure the adhesive. The outside and inside slats do not mix. Further planed slats for bonding to plastic and come to Painting Heating machine, located in close proximity to the press. Slats are glued on plastic and stored for at least 5 hours (depending on the adhesive system). Laminated board obtained a certain size. Planing lumber produced, depending on its destination, ie giving the profile, if it is wall beams, or girders for a smooth planing. That completed the process of making a bar, a so-called "sausage", then on a special project equipment chashkoreznom cut wall elements. For designing a separate article, which you can read on our site. We briefly discussed and a simplified manufacturing techniques laminated veneer lumber, and now we can discuss its merits, and of shortcomings as well.
1. Glued laminated timber stable material. This is achieved through: a) drying and removal of all board voltages (not very easy to dry timber without defects because of its large cross section is almost impossible), b) cutting boards into shorter elements and their subsequent bonding length (ie , the direction of the fibers in the bonded parts is usually the opposite, so lamella is not), c) gluing slats on plastic also prevents deformation.
2. It follows from the first, and says that at a stable compound material can be cut to the nearest millimeter, and at the same compound also remain stable.
3. Ability to manufacture various structures along the length dimensions. Typically, most companies do block up to 12 meters. In many cases it is sufficient for low-rise housing. But there are companies that generate laminated structures over 30 feet, mostly beams for sports arenas and venues.
4. High quality material processing. Glued laminated timber only requires further grinding (I think that sliced the quality is not enough) and handling paints. Quality is achieved by including the expense of handling the dry material. Often, manufacturers of laminated veneer lumber say - "furniture quality".
5. The strength and durability. Glued laminated timber - it's like that fairy tale of the broom, when the father gave his sons to break a whole and individually. The principle of multi-layer laminated board gives the unique physical and mechanical properties. The durability is also achieved by a competent processing lumber and conditions of its operation. Proper design of houses from glued beams ensure its preservation for the ages.
6. The high insulating properties, the absence of large cracks (hairline cracks in the wall beams are allowed). Due to the layering, the presence of adhesive joints, lack of cross-cutting fractures achieved a unique thermal insulation properties of laminated veneer lumber. Often, when calculating the thickness of the wooden walls of laminated veneer lumber used data on the thermal conductivity of simple wooden wall, obtained from reference 70-80 years. This is plainly not true, the wall of laminated veneer lumber - is not just a wooden wall with the presence of cracks and crevices after installation. Using old data to calculate the thickness of the wall is unacceptable. From personal experience I can tell by region, Moscow and St. Petersburg - 200 mm for permanent residence, Murmansk - 240 mm. For those who want to play it safe - 240 mm.
7. The virtual absence of shrinkage of wooden houses from glued beams. Usually shrinkage glued beam houses, 1-3% for houses made of wood of natural humidity of 7-15%. In practice, when building houses from glued beams observed in the following picture. The walls of the house of laminated veneer lumber studs shrink, which will eventually have to reach out from shrinkage home. In many cases, home raised with moisture content 12%, a year later clamped rods so that the need to broach fell away. The explanation for this effect as follows: beam in vivo gaining humidity of 16-18% and expanded. Locks can not make out, cut into the wood studs, provided the correct assembly of the house and precipitation of each timber during assembly.
8. Fire resistance. Unusual to hear such a "wood", but it is. If the building caught fire and there are metal and laminated beams, the metal will fall faster, the same applies to the concrete. The paradox, but true. And if a beam treated with fire retardant, the fire is increased significantly.
9. Environmental friendliness. This is the last paragraph in this article, which praises the laminated board. "Tree as a tree, but rather how does the glue?" - Asked by many. On this occasion we can say the following. Let us turn to the higher technology of timber. When bonding adhesive layer on the timber seams are inside the wood exit to the surface of the ground coupling beams, and can in no way "fonit" in the room. Only at the ends of these seams are visible, but the ends are usually treated with paints. Another thing is when gluing the seams along, they really come to the surface, but their area in relation to the area of the wall is a miser. Even if it is very bad and harmful substance, from a meager square of evaporation will never exceed the maximum permissible concentration in the room, and the adhesive with a hygienic certificate and endorsed by leading institutions in Europe.
House of the profiled bar of natural moisture.
Not the best stuff, but since it exists and is used, then there is a need to objectively cover. Production of shaped timber of natural moisture unpretentious. Beam after the sawmill goes to four-profiling machine with knives. That's all the production. What is the result? We have planed (though not better), the lateral surfaces. This is probably all the advantages over a simple bar of natural moisture. Will it benefit the customer used in the operation of a wooden house, a big question. As the drying of timber to be serious, serious cracks will be formed, and therefore the homeowner may decide to upholster the walls of the house with another material. The presence of a profile in this case, in my opinion, this is more disadvantage than advantage all the same reasons (twisting, cracking). Build a house of this material with a minimum of shoals is possible only with very quick delivery and installation of the four-bar machine. It also requires the application of external forces (weight and ties) in order to block not deployed in the wall. As a result, the assembly process requires a fairly skilled staff with good experience in working with the wood of natural humidity, otherwise serious shoals can not be avoided. The advantage of shaped timber and natural moisture is its price. We have mentioned that I think shaped beam of natural moisture derived from laminated veneer lumber. In my opinion its the birth was associated with an attempt (I think not very good) to get a decent look and quality of laminated veneer lumber with minimal costs. In addition, the very production of laminated veneer lumber requires significant capital investment (thermal unit, dryers, hot plant, equipment), and shaped beam to produce natural moisture and can be shed by acquiring four-machine size. Just a couple of words about the house-building of the profiled bar of natural moisture. There are firms that offer, in the likeness of a laminated board, ready to cut the designer of a bar of natural moisture. In my opinion this is generally not possible, neither of which exactly cutting plates are out of the question, because in a month, this cup will have a millimeter gap, and after six months and up to 5 millimeters. Add a house is equivalent to labor in the galleys, the accuracy is not achieved ever. When the operator of the machine to finish chashkonareznogo napilivat kit home from a bar of natural moisture, the first timber is made to be behavioral, not to speak of when the bar goes to the site.
Houses of dry profiled bars.
The second derivative of laminated veneer lumber, then, as mentioned above, is dried shaped beam. Seeing that the trial bar of natural moisture content is not successful, intelligent people have gone further and suggested that dry timber, and only then profiled and cut into the cup. Theoretically, the idea is not bad, if not for one thing. The problem of drying the solid timber, a complex process that requires some training. The thing is the thickness of a bar and there is no possibility of uniformly show moisture from the surface and mid-beams. In practice, it turns out: moisture rapidly evaporates from the surface of the wood, the wood tries to shrink, but the moisture inside does not do this and as a result of tearing the wood. Through the crack in the middle of the timber moisture reaches the surface. The result - big cracks. To combat this phenomenon have come up with compensatory cuts in Metachem, where the beam will fall on each other. The situation has improved considerably, cracking was much smaller. But really dry timber quality to 12% is not always possible, the scrap rate is still high. Dry timber up to 12% may not be enough of 14-16%, but the sense of a dry timber in the following. When you compile the design of the timber 12%, then after some time in the open air bar gets up to 16-18% moisture and will swell all the connections, they will jam and very dense, disassemble a frame without loss virtually impossible. When assembling the timber moisture content of 16-18% of this effect will not be. Yes, this decision helped to make the bar a little cheaper, but as there is still a considerable losses. Why a little cheaper, it's because all the additional steps for moving, stacking, sawing compensatory cuts, scrap rate, the increase in the amount of waste when cutting cups due to a decrease in the beam (long bar is easier to optimize than the shorter, the percentage of waste less, and solid timber is usually not more than 6 meters, and dryers more than 6 meters wide enough) did their dirty work and did not give that effect to reduce the price of what was expected. Many firms are positioning themselves as producers of dry profiled timber, in this case are fairly low prices. I think they are a little disingenuous and not entirely comply with the technology of drying, producing a moist timber for dry. From experience I can say the following construction. This beam - this is the best option for the construction of small baths, summer seasonal visits, or at least a small (5x5) houses for permanent residence. For normal home residence is not very suitable. In addition, the docking bar on long walls, including the cups, this is not the best option. Sometimes used option, when the exterior walls of laminated veneer lumber, and the interior - solid. In 90% of cases, although the house and looked decent, customer regretted his decision. Saving a small, but the effect on life. Do not forget that there are still 10% who enjoyed it.
A very large topic, and even, perhaps, not entirely attributable to a wooden house construction, but it is absolutely worthwhile. Sami-frame houses can be classified separately from the wooden house. The mass of technology, different materials (not just wood), the latest developments - all aimed at lowering the cost of square meter. There are automated factories for the production of timber frame houses with substantial savings in mass production. Of course, being the construction of houses and individual orders. Topic requires a separate frame house lighting, so we will deal with you only on the materials used in construction of frame houses. The framework itself is made of wood, used as a regular board of natural moisture, so the same board, but in addition there are skeletons of dry wood, including laminated veneer lumber and LVL. Of course, the use of more modern and stable material leads to a more expensive frame, but on the other hand, the customer receives a higher quality. As for the heaters used in the "pie" in a frame house, this is also immense topic for another article. Mainly used glass wool, mineral wool from different manufacturers. Can also be used Penoizol and ecowool. For covering the frame there is also the weight of various materials. This is a different OSB, particle board, MDF, magnesite slabs, can be used paneling, siding, etc. Technology are vast. As I mentioned, frame house with a stretch can be attributed to the wooden house building, and an important difference between them lies in the fact that you never get the atmosphere of a wooden house - it's a fact.
BRIEF Thermomodified wood.
Thermomodified wood is produced by special drying at high temperatures and reduced pressure. Despite the fact that this product is a little on the Russian market, it is quite an old product that is widely used in Europe. This wood is primarily used in the construction of piers, bridges, sidewalks, as a decorative material which has good wear resistance. Its advantage is that it almost does not decay, in principle there is nothing to rot and it burned wood, and wood that is hard to call. In addition, the material is brittle, and can not be used in construction, load-bearing. Thermomodified wood deprived of the opportunity to "breathe" and does not make sense to her stud wall inside the premises can not be said about the external application. The use of thermo as the basic material for wooden housing - this dead end. This is good stuff, but it has its limitations in application.
Here is a brief overview of the whole, see the classification scheme.
I hope this material will help you in building an individual house.
Love your land, your home.